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CUIDADO CON EL EXCESO DE INSULINA

Tanto si usted es diabético o no lo es, la insulina, esencial para la vida, tiene un lado oscuro. Un exceso de esta hormona conduce a la obesidad y a muchas enfermedades relacionadas con ella. A continuación encontrará la explicación.

Adaptación de un artículo de Life Extension

La insulina es una hormona que regula el metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono y de las grasas (2). Permite al hígado y a las células musculares coger la glucosa de la sangre para producir energía o para almacenarla (2). También facilita la conversión de la glucosa en las células de grasa bajo forma de triglicéridos (2).

Un pico de la insulina se libera en respuesta a la ingestión de alimentos y generalmente le sigue un aumento de la glucemia (azúcar en la sangre). Una vez que la glucosa que circula en la sangre ha entrado en las células productoras de energía, o ha sido almacenada, el nivel de insulina debe bajar y ser inferior a 5 uUI / ml (35,7 pmol / l). (3) Tan sólo se requiere una pequeña cantidad de insulina residual para mantener la homeostasis de la glucosa.

Pero cuando la insulina en ayunas es superior a 5 uUI / ml, esto indica un tipo de problema metabólico del tipo pre-diabetes, lo que aumenta considerablemente el riesgo de desarrollar una enfermedad degenerativa. (3)

En las personas con trastornos metabólicos y/o obesidad, los niveles de insulina se mantienen obstinadamente altos, con las consiguientes reacciones destructivas por todo el organismo, pero sobre todo la incapacidad para perder peso, puesto que el exceso insulina promoverá el almacenamiento de la glucosa en las células grasas.

La cara oculta de la insulina

Las personas que sufren de diabetes tipo 1 ya no producen suficiente insulina. Para ellos, las inyecciones de insulina son vitales.

La insulina, sin embargo, tiene un lado oscuro insidioso. Niveles elevados están asociados con prácticamente todas las enfermedades relacionadas con el envejecimiento .

El propio proceso de envejecimiento, la mala nutrición y otros factores reducen la sensibilidad de las células a la insulina. (5-7) Esta pérdida de sensibilidad contribuye a una liberación excesiva de insulina en el cuerpo ya que trata de llevar la glucosa de la sangre a las células.

El efecto más inmediato es el aumento no deseado de peso. (8-10) La insulina llena las células de grasa y evita que esta se escape, dando como resultado una sensación de hambre crónica . (11-12) Altos niveles de insulina también contribuyen al desarrollo de enfermedades asociadas con el sobrepeso. Entre las enfermedades degenerativas están el infarto de (13-16) y el cáncer (17-19)

La hiperinsulinemia

La incapacidad de las células del cuerpo para utilizar la insulina se llama resistencia a la insulina. En respuesta a esta resistencia a la insulina y a otros factores, el páncreas produce más insulina de la normal, por lo que el nivel de insulina circulante en el torrente sanguíneo es mayor. Esto se denomina hiperinsulinemia. La hiperinsulinemia y la resistencia a la insulina crean un sin número de problemas tales como los triglicéridos elevados (21-24), niveles bajos de HDL, (25-26) diabetes tipo 2 (27-29) y la obesidad (14, 30-32)

La insulina y enfermedades relacionadas con la edad

La hiperinsulinemia es un problema de salud importante. Nivel alto de insulina en suero favorece la hipertensión que afecta el equilibrio de sodio. (33-34) Demasiada insulina afecta a los riñones .(35) El sistema vascular está también muy afectado, dañado, por la exposición prolongada a un exceso de insulina. (36-37)

Al actuar como un catalizador para el crecimiento celular, el exceso de insulina aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar y hacer progresar ciertos tipos de cáncer (17-19 , 38-40) Un nivel alto de insulina promueve la formación de beta-amiloide en las células del cerebro y puede contribuir al desarrollo el Alzheimer. (41) Una sobreproducción de insulina es también un factor que contribuye a la ampliación de la próstata debido a sus efectos sobre la proliferación de células de la próstata . (42)

La hiperinsulinemia esta asocia con el desarrollo de la obesidad abdominal, lo que exacerba muchos problemas inducidos por la resistencia a la insulina y el aumento de la grasa abdominal, incluyendo la aterosclerosis (14 , 43-45) y la impotencia. (46-50) La obesidad está asociada con un exceso de insulina y la reducción de la insulina , dos factores de riesgo para la diabetes tipo 2. (51)

La diabetes y el peso?

Un porcentaje significativo de enfermedades degenerativas se atribuyen a un exceso de grasa corporal. Las personas que tienen sobrepeso se enfrentan a un riesgo significativo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2. (53-55) El tratamiento de la obesidad y la diabetes tipo 2 están interrelacionados. Al abordar eficazmente una o más de estas enfermedades, los médicos pueden reducir o controlar a la otra.

Un efecto importante de los excedentes de la insulina en suero puede ser una constante sensación de hambre que lleva a un círculo vicioso en el que comer en exceso genera un exceso de grasa corporal que se acumula, que a su vez provoca una mayor secreción de insulina por páncreas. (12, 56)

Los peligros de la hiperglucemia postprandial ( después de las comidas )

La elevación de la glucemia postprandial y pico de insulina que acompaña son los principales contribuyentes al desarrollo de la diabetes y de las enfermedades relacionadas con la edad como las cardiovasculares y lesiones a los trastornos de la microvasculatura (pequeños vasos sanguíneos en los ojos, los riñones , así como las que se alimentan los nervios ). (59,67)

Las personas que tienen niveles normales de glucosa en ayunas, pero el nivel medio de glucosa después de las comidas exceden 194 mg / dl ( 10,8 mmol / l), son tres veces más propensas a desarrollar retinopatía diabética que otros. (59)

Muchos estudios indican que los picos de azúcar en la sangre después de las comidas tienen los mismos problemas principales para los no diabéticos. (59,69) Los dos mecanismos principales por los que la hiperglucemia posprandial causa este tipo de problemas son la formación de productos de glicación avanzada y un aumento de la producción de radicales libres que conducen al daño de la pared arterial . (70-71)

A menudo no hay signos visibles de la hiperinsulinemia. Si los niveles de insulina cambian con fuerza y ??abruptamente, los síntomas de la hipoglucemia pueden aparecer como:

? Debilidad muscular, fatiga
? Dificultad para concentrarse
? Visión borrosa o doble
? Dolores de cabeza
? Sed
? Temblores
Confusión

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